Force Division

The Ukraine is a presidential democracy with separation of powers. They still becomes - with structures inherited from the Soviet Union - centralist reigns.

The country is apportioned into 24 districts, whose governors are nominated of the president. The cities Kiev and Sewastopol have a special status.

Whereas the West Ukraine, with L'viv in the center, tries to open itself for the west, so the east and south of the Ukraine still seek the proximity to Russia. This division of the Ukraine is a product of its history. Centuries long the east was affiliated to the Russian Empire, whereas the west was subordinated to the Kingdom Poland and later to the Habsburger Empire.

The discrepancy is especially clear to see at the Peninsula of Crimea. 1954, on the occasion of the 300-year-jubilee of the Contract Of Perejaslav - the reunification of the Ukraine with Russia - the peninsula Crimea was transferred from Russia to the Ukraine.

Although in the year 1992 the Ukraine conceded extensive autonomy to the peninsula, many of there living 1,6 million Russians still strove for the connection to Russia. After bloody confrontations between the Russian and the Ukrainian minority the autonomy was abandoned meanwhile.

Today the peninsula Crimea is provided with an Ukrainian conforming constitution, with an autonomy status, with an individual parliament and an individual government. The Tartars whose coming back to the peninsula Crimea today, which were deported from Stalin after 1944, have to to fight with the defense stand of many Russians and Ukrainians.

Political Parties

The Most Important Parties

Name Party Political Line Foundation
People-Movement Ruch Ruch democratic, nationally 1989
Members Of The Greens Party PSU green, ecologically 1990
Social Democratic Party Of The Ukraine SDPU social-democratic 1990
Socialistic Progress Party PSP communist 1991
Communistic Party Of The Ukraine KPU communist, subsequent party of Soviet-era 1993
Agrarian Party APU communist, farmer party 1993
Democratic People Party NDPU democratic, centrically 1998

Political Personalities

Heads of State And Government Heads in the 20th Century

First Republic, 1918 - 21 in Kiev

Administration Name Office
1918 Mychailo Hruschewsky Chairman of the Central Committee
1918 Pawlo Skoropadsky Hetman
1918 - 19 Wolodymyr Wynnytschenko Chairman of the Board
1919 - 21 Symon Petljura Chairman of the Board

Ukrainian State: West-Ukraine, 1918-19 in L'viv (Lemberg)

Administration Name Office
1918 - 19 Jewgen Petruschewytsch Chairman of the National Council

Ukrainian Soviet-Republic, 1918-22 in Charkov

Administration Name Office
1918 Juchim Medwedjew Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
1918 Wolodymyr Satonsky Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
1918 - 19 Andri Bubnow Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
1919 - 38 Grigori Petrowski Chairman of the Central Executive Committee

1922 - 91: Constituent Republic of the Sovietunion

Second Republic, since 1991

Administration Name Office
1991 - 94 Leonid Krawtschuk President
since 1994 Leonid Kutschma President


Beside of the agriculture, are the coal mining and the steel industry the most important branches of industry. Important are airplane construction and rocketry moreover. The Ukraine has over a well developed, but renewal needy infrastructure for gas, stream, traffic and aeronautics.

The country reform with the dissolution of the inefficient large concerns, the creation of no-agriculture jobs in rural areas, as well as the creation of a free ground market, will be, like the finance reform, the denationalization process and the damming of the corruption, one of the most important topics of the coming years.

Daily News

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Friday 10 July 2020
The Dutch government made the move to help individual cases brought by victims’ relatives, the foreign minister said in a letter to Parliament.
Thursday 9 July 2020
A Chechen man shot near Vienna last weekend had spoken publicly of giving Austrian and Ukrainian authorities information about contract killings. He also said there was a price on his head.
Friday 3 July 2020
Russia’s grievances against what it sees as American bullying and expansion into its own zones of influence have been stacking up for decades.
Thursday 2 July 2020
The International Monetary Fund agreed to lend Ukraine $5 billion over 18 months while stressing the importance of central bank independence. Three weeks later, the central banker quit, citing political pressure.
Wednesday 24 June 2020
Environmentalists say illegal logging in the Carpathian Mountains is contributing to flooding. Rising waters forced the partial evacuation of a hospital treating Covid-19 patients.
Saturday 20 June 2020
Status-conscious fast-food joints across Eastern Europe have offered their diners disposable gloves for years. The idea may find a wider audience in the pandemic era.
Wednesday 10 June 2020
President Volodymyr Zelensky of Ukraine won an endorsement for his anti-corruption policies with the approval of a $5 billion lending program from the International Monetary Fund.
Wednesday 10 June 2020
Eleven foreign couples, previously barred by coronavirus restrictions, have entered the country to meet their newborns. But births are still outpacing pickups.
Saturday 6 June 2020
The plan is a further blow to America’s weakening European alliances and likely to be welcomed by President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia.
Wednesday 27 May 2020
As she endured a difficult recovery from Covid-19, the grandmaster Irina Krush thrived in competition and found familiar support from others in the game.
Wednesday 24 February 2021
Julian Borger in Washington
In letter to Tehran, human rights advocate outlines six-month investigation into disasterMany high level Iranian officials should be charged for the shooting down of a Ukrainian commercial airliner in January 2020, a UN human rights expert has said, describing the killing of the 176 people aboard as a “profound and serious indictment” of the country’s civil and military authorities.Agnès Callamard, the UN special rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, delivered a 45-page letter to the Iranian government which was made public on Tuesday, outlining her findings from a six-month investigation into the disaster, and complaining about the lack of Iranian cooperation, which has left many of her questions unanswered. Related: A visual guide to the Iran plane crash Continue ...
Monday 15 February 2021
Agence France-Presse in Kyiv

Man unhappy with state of his road told officers they would have to come in a snowplough to arrest him

A Ukrainian man confessed to a fictitious murder in the hope police would clear his snow-covered road when they came to arrest him, regional authorities have said.

The man called police on Saturday evening to tell them he had killed his mother’s partner by stabbing him in the chest.

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Rudy Giuliani
Wednesday 10 February 2021
Julian Borger in Washington

‘Get someone to investigate this,’ Giuliani tells two Ukrainian officials in 40-minute call obtained by Time magazine

A new transcript has surfaced of the former Trump lawyer, Rudy Giuliani, putting pressure on the Ukrainian government to open an investigation into the Biden family.

The transcript of a 40-minute call between Giuliani and two Ukrainian officials, was obtained by Time magazine, and served as a reminder of Donald Trump’s first impeachment trial, even as his second is under way in the Senate.

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Thursday 21 January 2021
Luke Harding

European court of human rights: Moscow responsible for murder of civilians, and looting and burning of homes

Russia committed a series of human rights violations during its war with Georgia in 2008, the European court of human rights ruled on Thursday, saying Moscow was responsible for the murder of Georgian civilians, and the looting and burning of their homes.

In a landmark judgment, the court said the Kremlin was guilty of unlawfully rounding up ethnic Georgians and their subsequent “inhuman and degrading treatment”. This included the torture of Georgian prisoners of war and the expulsion of Georgian villagers from their homes in South Ossetia.

Related: Even in a Moscow jail, Alexei Navalny is dangerous to Putin

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Drama films
Tuesday 19 January 2021
Cath Clarke
Claiming to be inspired by true events, the story of a young Jewish man who stays alive by pretending to be half-Iranian strains credibilityHere’s a superbly acted, though worryingly polite, Holocaust survival drama by the Ukrainian film-maker Vadim Perelman. It’s the story of a Jewish man from Belgium called Gilles (Nahuel Pérez Biscayart), who stays alive in a transit camp by pretending to be half-Iranian and teaching Farsi to a savage-tempered SS officer, Klaus Koch (Lars Eidinger). In truth, Gilles doesn’t know a word of Farsi; the language he makes up is gibberish, and he lives in constant terror of slipping up, forgetting one of the words he’s invented – almost 600 in six months.The film opens with the line “inspired by true events”, but given the plausibility issues here surely it is safe to prefix that claim with “very loosely”. The setting is France, 1942; Gilles, the son of a rabbi, is transported to a transit camp with other Jews caught trying to flee to Switzerland. A hustler by nature, Gilles easily – too easily – persuades Nazi officer Koch that he speaks Farsi. Koch is a chef by training and dreams of opening a restaurant in Iran after the war. Suspecting Gilles of lying, he grills him, with ...
Wednesday 23 December 2020
Phoebe Weston
Scientists warn of threat of nuclear contamination from work on giant E40 waterway linking Baltic to the Black SeaThe race to save Polesia, Europe’s secret AmazonRead more in our series Biodiversity: what happened next?The river running past the Chernobyl nuclear reactor is being dredged to create an inland shipping route, potentially resurfacing radioactive sludge from the 1986 disaster that could contaminate drinking water for 8 million people in Ukraine, scientists and conservationists have warned.The dredging of the Pripyat began in July and is part of an international project to create the 2,000km (1,240-mile) long E40 waterway linking the Baltic and Black seas, passing through Poland, Belarus and Ukraine. The river – which snakes within 2.5km of the reactor responsible for the world’s worst nuclear disaster – has already been dredged in at least seven different places, five of which are within 10km of the reactor, according to the Save Polesia coalition. Related: The race to save Polesia, Europe's secret Amazon Continue ...
Tuesday 15 December 2020
Mia Alberti in Lisbon

Ukrainian man was allegedly beaten and asphyxiated by officers at detention centre in March

Portugal’s home affairs minister is facing calls to resign amid outrage over the fatal beating of a Ukrainian man by border patrol officers at a detention centre at Lisbon airport in March.

It is alleged that Ihor Homenyuk, after two days in custody following his arrival without a visa and refusal to board a flight home, was beaten and asphyxiated by three officers who tied his arms and legs to restrain him.

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Action and adventure films
Tuesday 24 November 2020
Ellen E Jones
Bear attacks and marauding hordes can’t rescue this dismal attempt to conjure up an epic medieval adventureSay what you like about the artistic integrity of Game of Thrones, but at least it never skimped on the saucy stuff. Fall of a Kingdom pitches itself as “Game of Thrones meets Braveheart”, but lacks the redeeming feature that united both those sources of inspiration: entertainment value. It’s a dull historical action drama that is in desperate need of some gratuitous sex or violence to liven up its near two-hour running time.Originally called The Rising Hawk and shot in Ukraine (home country of co-director Akhtem Seitablaev), Fall of a Kingdom attempts to conjure an epic sense of adventure with its Carpathian mountains backdrop and large cast of costumed extras. Maksim (Alex MacNicholl) and Myroslava (Poppy Drayton) are the children of rival neighbouring chieftains; they begin courting during a bear attack, but have a hard time overcoming Myroslava’s family’s opposition to their union. “No daughter of mine will be picking berries!” booms her stern father (Tommy Flanagan). Continue ...
Sunday 22 November 2020
Mark Townsend Home affairs editor

Tech giant criticised for failing to act after being told two years ago about extremist activity on its platform

A white supremacist network with more than 80,000 followers and links to the UK far right, including a student charged with terrorist offences, is being hosted by Facebook and Instagram, putting the world’s largest social media company under fresh pressure to tackle extremism.

The network, which includes more than 40 neo-Nazi sites, offers merchandise including NaziSS symbols and stickers praising Kyle Rittenhouse, the teenager under investigation for shooting dead two Black Lives Matter protesters in Wisconsin in August.

Related: Michigan terror plot: why rightwing extremists are thriving on Facebook

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Saturday 10 October 2020
Patrick Wintour Diplomatic editor

Andriy Yermak says unrest in Belarus means his country needs to strengthen defences

The UK is willing to provide a large lethal weapons contract to Ukraine and a £1bn loan to help Ukraine’s navy build new ships capable of use in the Black Sea, according to a senior aide to the Ukrainian president, Volodymyr Zelenskiy.

Andriy Yermak, the head of office to Zelenksiy also warned that the suppression of post-election unrest in neighbouring Belarus posed a potential direct threat to Ukraine, and said his country was seeking assurances from the European Union and the UK about helping to safeguard its security.

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Wednesday 30 September 2020
Julian Borger in Washington and Shaun Walker in Moscow
  • Woman had non-diplomatic job at embassy, source says
  • Police looking for tall, dark-haired man aged about 30

An American woman working for the US embassy in Kyiv has been killed in an apparent attack while she was jogging in the Ukrainian capital.

A police statement said the victim was found unconscious from a head injury by railway tracks near Kyiv’s Nyvky Park and in the same district as the US embassy. She died in hospital. The statement said the police were looking for a tall, dark-haired man in shorts, T-shirt and running shoes, aged about 30.

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US elections 2020
Wednesday 30 September 2020
Joe Biden was interrupted while paying tribute to his son Beau, who died of brain cancer in 2015, during the first presidential debate against Donald Trump.The former vice-president brought up Beau, the former attorney general of Delaware who served in the army, to highlight Trump’s reported criticism of military members as 'losers'. The president cut in and turned the exchange into an attack on the business dealings of Biden’s other son, Hunter, in Ukraine. Despite a Senate investigation, there was no evidence of any wrongdoing by Biden, and indeed Trump was impeached for the way in which he was pushing government officials in Kiev to investigate the Biden family.The president went on to remind viewers of Hunter Biden’s past drug use and falsely accused him of being dishonourably discharged from the military. Joe Biden, looking directly into the camera, explained that like many Americans, his son had struggled with addictionDonald Trump plunges debate into chaos as he repeatedly talks over Joe BidenA mess of Trump's making: key takeaways from the first presidential debate Continue ...
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