Force Division

The Ukraine is a presidential democracy with separation of powers. They still becomes - with structures inherited from the Soviet Union - centralist reigns.

The country is apportioned into 24 districts, whose governors are nominated of the president. The cities Kiev and Sewastopol have a special status.

Whereas the West Ukraine, with L'viv in the center, tries to open itself for the west, so the east and south of the Ukraine still seek the proximity to Russia. This division of the Ukraine is a product of its history. Centuries long the east was affiliated to the Russian Empire, whereas the west was subordinated to the Kingdom Poland and later to the Habsburger Empire.

The discrepancy is especially clear to see at the Peninsula of Crimea. 1954, on the occasion of the 300-year-jubilee of the Contract Of Perejaslav - the reunification of the Ukraine with Russia - the peninsula Crimea was transferred from Russia to the Ukraine.

Although in the year 1992 the Ukraine conceded extensive autonomy to the peninsula, many of there living 1,6 million Russians still strove for the connection to Russia. After bloody confrontations between the Russian and the Ukrainian minority the autonomy was abandoned meanwhile.

Today the peninsula Crimea is provided with an Ukrainian conforming constitution, with an autonomy status, with an individual parliament and an individual government. The Tartars whose coming back to the peninsula Crimea today, which were deported from Stalin after 1944, have to to fight with the defense stand of many Russians and Ukrainians.

Political Parties

The Most Important Parties

Name Party Political Line Foundation
People-Movement Ruch Ruch democratic, nationally 1989
Members Of The Greens Party PSU green, ecologically 1990
Social Democratic Party Of The Ukraine SDPU social-democratic 1990
Socialistic Progress Party PSP communist 1991
Communistic Party Of The Ukraine KPU communist, subsequent party of Soviet-era 1993
Agrarian Party APU communist, farmer party 1993
Democratic People Party NDPU democratic, centrically 1998

Political Personalities

Heads of State And Government Heads in the 20th Century

First Republic, 1918 - 21 in Kiev

Administration Name Office
1918 Mychailo Hruschewsky Chairman of the Central Committee
1918 Pawlo Skoropadsky Hetman
1918 - 19 Wolodymyr Wynnytschenko Chairman of the Board
1919 - 21 Symon Petljura Chairman of the Board

Ukrainian State: West-Ukraine, 1918-19 in L'viv (Lemberg)

Administration Name Office
1918 - 19 Jewgen Petruschewytsch Chairman of the National Council

Ukrainian Soviet-Republic, 1918-22 in Charkov

Administration Name Office
1918 Juchim Medwedjew Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
1918 Wolodymyr Satonsky Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
1918 - 19 Andri Bubnow Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
1919 - 38 Grigori Petrowski Chairman of the Central Executive Committee

1922 - 91: Constituent Republic of the Sovietunion

Second Republic, since 1991

Administration Name Office
1991 - 94 Leonid Krawtschuk President
since 1994 Leonid Kutschma President


Beside of the agriculture, are the coal mining and the steel industry the most important branches of industry. Important are airplane construction and rocketry moreover. The Ukraine has over a well developed, but renewal needy infrastructure for gas, stream, traffic and aeronautics.

The country reform with the dissolution of the inefficient large concerns, the creation of no-agriculture jobs in rural areas, as well as the creation of a free ground market, will be, like the finance reform, the denationalization process and the damming of the corruption, one of the most important topics of the coming years.

Daily News

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Friday 10 July 2020
The Dutch government made the move to help individual cases brought by victims’ relatives, the foreign minister said in a letter to Parliament.
Thursday 9 July 2020
A Chechen man shot near Vienna last weekend had spoken publicly of giving Austrian and Ukrainian authorities information about contract killings. He also said there was a price on his head.
Friday 3 July 2020
Russia’s grievances against what it sees as American bullying and expansion into its own zones of influence have been stacking up for decades.
Thursday 2 July 2020
The International Monetary Fund agreed to lend Ukraine $5 billion over 18 months while stressing the importance of central bank independence. Three weeks later, the central banker quit, citing political pressure.
Wednesday 24 June 2020
Environmentalists say illegal logging in the Carpathian Mountains is contributing to flooding. Rising waters forced the partial evacuation of a hospital treating Covid-19 patients.
Saturday 20 June 2020
Status-conscious fast-food joints across Eastern Europe have offered their diners disposable gloves for years. The idea may find a wider audience in the pandemic era.
Wednesday 10 June 2020
President Volodymyr Zelensky of Ukraine won an endorsement for his anti-corruption policies with the approval of a $5 billion lending program from the International Monetary Fund.
Wednesday 10 June 2020
Eleven foreign couples, previously barred by coronavirus restrictions, have entered the country to meet their newborns. But births are still outpacing pickups.
Saturday 6 June 2020
The plan is a further blow to America’s weakening European alliances and likely to be welcomed by President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia.
Wednesday 27 May 2020
As she endured a difficult recovery from Covid-19, the grandmaster Irina Krush thrived in competition and found familiar support from others in the game.
Action and adventure films
Tuesday 24 November 2020
Ellen E Jones
Bear attacks and marauding hordes can’t rescue this dismal attempt to conjure up an epic medieval adventureSay what you like about the artistic integrity of Game of Thrones, but at least it never skimped on the saucy stuff. Fall of a Kingdom pitches itself as “Game of Thrones meets Braveheart”, but lacks the redeeming feature that united both those sources of inspiration: entertainment value. It’s a dull historical action drama that is in desperate need of some gratuitous sex or violence to liven up its near two-hour running time.Originally called The Rising Hawk and shot in Ukraine (home country of co-director Akhtem Seitablaev), Fall of a Kingdom attempts to conjure an epic sense of adventure with its Carpathian mountains backdrop and large cast of costumed extras. Maksim (Alex MacNicholl) and Myroslava (Poppy Drayton) are the children of rival neighbouring chieftains; they begin courting during a bear attack, but have a hard time overcoming Myroslava’s family’s opposition to their union. “No daughter of mine will be picking berries!” booms her stern father (Tommy Flanagan). Continue ...
Sunday 22 November 2020
Mark Townsend Home affairs editor

Tech giant criticised for failing to act after being told two years ago about extremist activity on its platform

A white supremacist network with more than 80,000 followers and links to the UK far right, including a student charged with terrorist offences, is being hosted by Facebook and Instagram, putting the world’s largest social media company under fresh pressure to tackle extremism.

The network, which includes more than 40 neo-Nazi sites, offers merchandise including NaziSS symbols and stickers praising Kyle Rittenhouse, the teenager under investigation for shooting dead two Black Lives Matter protesters in Wisconsin in August.

Related: Michigan terror plot: why rightwing extremists are thriving on Facebook

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Saturday 10 October 2020
Patrick Wintour Diplomatic editor

Andriy Yermak says unrest in Belarus means his country needs to strengthen defences

The UK is willing to provide a large lethal weapons contract to Ukraine and a £1bn loan to help Ukraine’s navy build new ships capable of use in the Black Sea, according to a senior aide to the Ukrainian president, Volodymyr Zelenskiy.

Andriy Yermak, the head of office to Zelenksiy also warned that the suppression of post-election unrest in neighbouring Belarus posed a potential direct threat to Ukraine, and said his country was seeking assurances from the European Union and the UK about helping to safeguard its security.

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Wednesday 30 September 2020
Julian Borger in Washington and Shaun Walker in Moscow
  • Woman had non-diplomatic job at embassy, source says
  • Police looking for tall, dark-haired man aged about 30

An American woman working for the US embassy in Kyiv has been killed in an apparent attack while she was jogging in the Ukrainian capital.

A police statement said the victim was found unconscious from a head injury by railway tracks near Kyiv’s Nyvky Park and in the same district as the US embassy. She died in hospital. The statement said the police were looking for a tall, dark-haired man in shorts, T-shirt and running shoes, aged about 30.

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US elections 2020
Wednesday 30 September 2020
Joe Biden was interrupted while paying tribute to his son Beau, who died of brain cancer in 2015, during the first presidential debate against Donald Trump.The former vice-president brought up Beau, the former attorney general of Delaware who served in the army, to highlight Trump’s reported criticism of military members as 'losers'. The president cut in and turned the exchange into an attack on the business dealings of Biden’s other son, Hunter, in Ukraine. Despite a Senate investigation, there was no evidence of any wrongdoing by Biden, and indeed Trump was impeached for the way in which he was pushing government officials in Kiev to investigate the Biden family.The president went on to remind viewers of Hunter Biden’s past drug use and falsely accused him of being dishonourably discharged from the military. Joe Biden, looking directly into the camera, explained that like many Americans, his son had struggled with addictionDonald Trump plunges debate into chaos as he repeatedly talks over Joe BidenA mess of Trump's making: key takeaways from the first presidential debate Continue ...
Saturday 26 September 2020
Agence France-Presse
Most of those killed in the crash near Kharkiv were military cadets, officials sayAt least 22 people including military cadets were killed and two others were seriously injured when a Ukrainian air force plane crashed near Kharkiv in the east of the country, the interior ministry said.Deputy interior minister Anton Gerashchenko confirmed the death toll, describing the incident as a “shock”, and saying that the cause of the crash on Friday was being investigated.#Chuhuiv: Ukrainian authorities say at least 22 people have died in a military plane crash in northeast Ukraine. The AN-26 military plane was carrying a total of 28 passengers when it crashed and burst into flames in Chuhuiv, Kharkiv Oblast. Related: Iran report on downed Ukrainian jet blames misaligned air defence system Continue ...
Joe Biden
Wednesday 23 September 2020
Guardian staff and agency
  • Republicans call Joe Biden’s son’s board role ‘problematic’
  • Biden campaign paints report as effort to damage Democrats

Two Republican-led Senate committees issued a politically charged report on Wednesday, alleging the work Joe Biden’s son did in Ukraine constituted a conflict of interest for the Obama administration at a time when Biden was engaged in Ukraine policy as vice-president.

Related: Harry and Meghan criticised after video urging Americans to vote

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Friday 18 September 2020
Harriet Sherwood and agencies

Two thousand ultra-Orthodox Jews held at Belarus border after warnings not to travel

Two thousand ultra-Orthodox Jews are being blocked by armed guards from entering Ukraine for an annual pilgrimage to a rabbi’s grave, creating a makeshift camp at the country’s border with Belarus.

The men ignored warnings by the Ukrainian authorities not to travel after its borders closed at the end of last month in an attempt to stop the spread of Covid-19.

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Thursday 3 September 2020
Felicity Lawrence and David Pegg

Exclusive: Testimony of HGV drivers from ex-Soviet countries raises fresh questions over supply chain

Haulage drivers delivering to Amazon distribution centres across Europe allege that safety records are being deliberately manipulated and wages withheld in a breach of the e-commerce multinational’s pledges about working conditions in its supply chain.

HGV drivers recruited from former Soviet-bloc countries have told the Guardian that they were instructed to cheat tachograph machines that log their working hours, so that they could drive illegally long and unsafe stints in western Europe.

Related: Jeff Bezos, the world's richest man, added £10bn to his fortune in just one day

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House of Representatives
Friday 28 August 2020
Julian Borger in Washington

Committee says secretary of state has refused to comply with subpoenas for documents connected to Ukraine scandal

Congressional Democrats have launched contempt proceedings against Mike Pompeo for his refusal to comply with subpoenas for documents connected to the Ukraine scandal that led to Donald Trump’s impeachment.

The move is the culmination of a long-running struggle over Congress’s authority to conduct oversight of government agencies. The secretary of state, who was a fierce advocate of congressional rights when he was a Republican representative from Kansas, has ignored a string of demands for documentation from the Democrat-controlled House foreign affairs committee (HFAC).

Related: Pompeo faces congressional inquiry over RNC speech during diplomatic trip

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Wednesday 22 July 2020

A gunman in Ukraine has released 13 hostages after the country's president agreed to post a video on Facebook recommending a 2005 animal rights documentary.

Volodymyr Zelenskiy promoted Earthlings, narrated by Joaquin Phoenix, to help end an hours-long standoff in the western Ukrainian city of Lutsk, where 44-year-old Maksym Kryvosh had seized a bus with the people onboard.

The video has since been taken down from Facebook and Kryvosh arrested.

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Tuesday 21 July 2020
Andrew Roth in Moscow

Gunman surrenders after video recommending 2005’s Earthlings posted on Facebook

A gunman in Ukraine armed with an automatic rifle and grenades has surrendered to police and released 13 hostages after the country’s president consented to his demand to recommend the 2005 animal rights documentary Earthlings, narrated by Joaquin Phoenix.

The niche film recommendation, delivered by President Volodymyr Zelenskiy over Facebook, helped end an hours-long standoff in the western Ukrainian city of Lutsk, where 44-year-old Maksym Kryvosh seized a bus and demanded that dozens of government officials admit to being “terrorists”.

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